西北大学2010年博士入学英语考试翻译部分:汉译英(10分)

 

原文:

大学之所以有理由存在,是因为它使老少两代人在富于想象力的学习中,保持了知识与生活热情之间的联系。大学提供信息,但它是富于想象地提供信息。至少这是它应该为社会发挥的作用。一所大学如果不做到这一点,就没有理由存在。富于想象的思维可以营造出一种令人兴奋的氛围,而这种氛围又可以转化知识。事实不再是纯粹的事实,它被赋予了种种可能性。它不再是记忆的负担,而是充满活力,犹如能描绘我们梦境的诗人,能实现我们意图的建筑师。

 

初步翻译:

As why the university could exist, is that it keeps the relationship between knowledge and the passions of life during their study progress in the two generations of the young and the old. The university provides information with imagination. This is the function to the society at least. There is no reason for a university to exist if it can’t make this point. Imaginational atmosphere brings exciting atmosphere, well thus can transform into knowledge. The truth is no longer the pure truth, it gains variety of possibilities. It’s no longer the burden of the memory, but the active poet who could represent our dreams, or the architect who can achieve our intentions.

 

 

重新修改后:

As the reason why the university could exist, is that it keeps the relationship between knowledge and the passions of life during their study progress in the two generations of the young and the old. The university provides information, while with imagination inside the information. This is the function it should to the society at least. There would be no reasons for a university to exist if it couldn’t make this point. Imaginational atmosphere brings exciting atmosphere, well thus can transform into knowledge. The truth is no longer the pure truth, but was given variety of possibilities. It’s no longer the burden of the memory, but the active poet who could represent our dreams, or the architect who could achieve our intentions.

 

 

 

这些词都是计算机密码学常用词,对搜寻相关的外文文献有用。这只是大部分,还没写全。

明文plaintext
密钥key
密文ciphertext
入侵者intruder
密码分析学cryptanalysis
设计密码的艺术cryptography
密码术cryptology

 

Kerckhoff’s principicle原则
含糊的安全性security by obscurity
工作因子work factor
只有密文ciphertext-only
已知明文known plaintext
选择明文chosen plaintext
置换密码substitution cipher
凯撒密码Caesaar cipher
Julius Caesar
单字母表置换monoalphabetic substitution
转置密码transposition cipher
一次一密one-time pad
量子密码学quantum cryptography
安全个体principal
光子photon
直线基rectilinear basis
对角基diagonal basis
随机数发生器!(这本身就是一个非常复杂的主题)
量子位qubit:每次发送一个光子的数据位
秘密放大privacy amplification
对称密钥算法symmetric-key algorithm
块密码block cipher
P-盒P-box
S-盒S-box
乘积密码product cipher
排列permutation
数据加密标准DES(Data Encryption Standard)
白化whitening
国家安全局NSA(National Security Agency)
美国标准和技术委员会NIST(National Institute of Standards and Technology)
高级加密算法AES(Advanced Encryption Standard)
电子代码簿模式ECB(Electronic Code Book Mode)
密码块链接cipher block chaining
初始向量IV(Initialization vector)
密码反馈模式cipher feedback mode
流密码模式stream cipher mode
密钥流重用攻击keystream resue attact
计数器模式counter mode

 

最常见的密钥算法
Blowfish Bruce Schneier 1-448位 old
DES IBM 56位 太弱
IDEA
RC4
RC5
Rijndael Daemen&Rijmen 128-256位 最佳选择
Serpent很强
三重DES IBM 168位 第二最佳选择
Twofish Bruce schneier 128-256位 很强,被广泛使用

 
差分密码分析differential cryptanalysis
线性密码分析linear cryptanalysis
公开密钥密码系统public-key cryptography
不可否认性nonrepudiation
数字签名标准DSS(Digital Signature Standard)
消息摘要messsage digest
证书权威机构Certification Autjority
特征attribute

标点和符号的英文叫法

.       period 句号
,      comma 逗号
:      colon 冒号
;      semicolon 分号
!      exclamation 惊叹号
?      question mark 问号
 ̄      hyphen 连字符
‘          apostrophe 省略号;所有格符号
—      dash 破折号
‘’        single quotation marks 单引号
“ ”      double quotation marks 双引号
( )      parentheses 圆括号
[ ]      square brackets 方括号
《 》      French quotes 法文引号;书名号
…       ellipsis 省略号
¨      tandem colon 双点号
”         ditto 同上
‖      parallel 双线号
/      virgule 斜线号
&      ampersand = and
~      swung dash 代字号
§      section; division 分节号
→      arrow 箭号;参见号
+      plus 加号;正号
-      minus 减号;负号
±      plus or minus 正负号
×      is multiplied by 乘号
÷      is divided by 除号
=      is equal to 等于号
≠      is not equal to 不等于号
≡      is equivalent to 全等于号
≌      is equal to or approximately equal to 等于或约等于号
≈      is approximately equal to 约等于号
<      is less than 小于号
>      is more than 大于号
≮      is not less than 不小于号
≯      is not more than 不大于号
≤      is less than or equal to 小于或等于号
≥      is more than or equal to  大于或等于号
%      per cent 百分之…
‰      per mill 千分之…
∞      infinity 无限大号
∝      varies as 与…成比例
√      (square) root 平方根
∵      since; because 因为
∴      hence 所以
∷      equals, as (proportion) 等于,成比例
∠      angle 角
⌒      semicircle 半圆
⊙      circle 圆
○      circumference 圆周
π      pi 圆周率
△      triangle 三角形
⊥      perpendicular to 垂直于
∪      union of 并,合集
∩      intersection of 交,通集
∫      the integral of …的积分
∑      (sigma) summation of 总和
°      degree 度
′      minute 分
″      second 秒
#      number …号
℃      Celsius system 摄氏度
@      at 单价

光学折反射专业词汇:

dielectric constant, permittivity 介电常数,又称“电容率”。
magnetic permeability, permeability,magnetic conductivity 磁导率。
index of reflection 反射率
index of refraction 折射率

常见的英语前缀英语后缀

英语前缀

英语后缀

不连续运动

不连续运动(来自汉英航空大词典、汉英机械大词典、汉英汽车大词典)
discontinuous motion,discontinuous fluid ,intermittent motion,discrete